When laying stoves with your own hands, it is important to strictly follow the sequence of work and strictly follow the process technology. The laying of the stove in the house begins with the foundation, then the walls are erected, arches and arches are laid out under the firebox. Before you lay out the oven, you should read the step-by-step instructions and take into account the advice of specialists. You will learn about the detailed laying of the furnace and the features of the work on this page.
Furnaces, the mass of which does not exceed 750 kg, can be installed without foundation on a solid floor. The mass of the furnace can be determined from the calculation that 1 m2 of masonry is approximately 1600 kg.
To make the floor for laying the stove for the house more durable, additional logs need to be laid on the brick columns.
If the mass of the furnace is more than 750 kg, it is laid on a foundation that rests on dense soil.
How to Make a Foundation for an Oven in a House With Your Own Hands
The foundation is made of rubble stone, ordinary clay brick or concrete of various grades. If the soil is dry or dense, then the masonry is carried out on lime or mixed mortar, and when wet – on cement. The arrangement of the foundation is as follows.
Before making the foundation for the furnace, you need to dig a pit, which should be 5 cm wider and deeper than the foundation, then level the bottom of the pit. The laying of the first row is carried out dry of stone or crushed stone. Tamp the stones into the ground and only then pour the solution.
Next, the masonry is carried out in regular rows with ligation of the seams. It is also possible to install formwork and grout.
The top of the foundation under the oven with your own hands is laid by the first row of bricks, which is poured with cement-clay or cement mortar and leveled using a square and level. The waterproofing from roofing material or roofing is laid on top. The laying of the foundation should not reach the floor level in three rows, which is approximately 18-19 cm.
How to Lay Stoves: Features of the Technology of Masonry Walls
With the correct laying of the furnace, the construction of the foundation is not tied to the laying of the wall. Otherwise, the foundation may be skewed. If the furnace is arranged near the wall, then a separate base is also made for it, and sand is poured into the formed space (3-5 cm) between the wall and the foundation.
Before laying the walls of the furnace, it is necessary to select the bricks. They must be well burned, have the correct shape, be one-dimensional with right angles, faces and surfaces, not without impurities of lime and stones.
Before masonry, the brick is wetted in water. When working with refractory bricks, it is enough to rinse it with water to remove dust.
The thickness of the walls of the furnace is selected depending on its design. There are options in 1, 1/2, 1/4, 2/4 and 3/4 bricks.
The masonry for the walls in 3/4 of the brick is as follows: the first row in 1/2 of the brick and the second in 1/4. It is believed that a brick that is laid on an edge gives a wall thickness of 1/4 of a brick. A wall in 2/4 bricks is also laid on the edge, but in such a way that one row is 5-6 cm higher than the other. Masonry seams must be bandaged. Each is covered with a solid brick with the approach to the side of 1/2 brick.
One of the features of the masonry of the furnace is the use of uncut and non-chopped bricks since such material becomes less durable. If you can’t do without it, you don’t need to lay the brick with the cut side in the smoke channels and the firebox, under the influence of high temperature the material will begin to crumble quickly.
The brick must be held in the palm of your hand at the moment when notches are made from four sides. Then, with a sharp blow, it is divided into the necessary parts.
After the brick is picked up and fitted, you can lay it on the solution, which must be spread out with a layer of not more than 5 mm.
Each laid out row should be checked for horizontality and rectangularity. Walls and corners are additionally checked for verticality. Inside the furnace, to block the channels, the brick is placed on steel strips. The metal expands when heated more than brick, and can destroy masonry. To avoid this, it is necessary to lay steel strips freely, without fixing with a solution. The best option when laying the stove is fixing the brick in the castle.
To ensure that the surface of the chimney is smooth and even, the laying of bricks is carried out especially carefully with the obligatory squeezing of the walls with a wet rag every 5-6 rows.
The furnace has gas ducts and openings, the dimensions of which can exceed the length of the brick, so they are blocked by a gradual inlet over each row. The overlap must be at least two rows of bricks laid flat (14 cm).
How to Layout the Arches and Arches of the Oven With Your Own Hands
The best option for firebox stoves and fireplaces are arches and arches. Before you lay out the oven with your own hands, think about the type of arch.
In the technique of oven masonry are used:
- semicircular type of arches;
- three-center – more gentle, allowing better reflect the heat of the furnace.
Any arch or arch has several reference points: the heel of the firebox, the front or the rear wall. Heels are laid at the first stage of any jumpers. They are made according to special patterns. The height of the arch or arch can be different, so the angle of the heels also changes.
Arches and arches are laid out with a thickness of 1/2 brick on the board formwork, which is laid on the made circles.
The laying of the arch begins immediately on two sides, namely, from the toes towards the middle of the arch with a dressing of the joints and squeezing, if necessary, the lower parts of the ribs of the brick. An odd number of bricks are placed in each row. The vault is closed by a middle brick, which is called castle. Each laid out row is checked with a ruler or card.
After masonry, the arch must be left in the formwork for several days, and then removed along with the circles. Formwork can also be burned during the first firebox.
Arches and arches are laid with a dressing of adjacent rows in 1/2 brick so that the transverse seams are not through. On the front side, the seams are made minimal – no more than 3 mm. There is an option of laying out the arch without scraping the brick. The seams below are made thinner, and at the top thicker. The difference between them is approximately 8 mm.
If the width of the firebox is not more than 42 cm, it can be covered with a simplified version of the triangular arch. To this end, heels are made in the walls of the furnace. For greater strength on the outside, they are pulled together by metal corners or made thicker at a given location in the wall.